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Q&A 'differential' vs 'different' : as adjectives, not nouns.

Are the textbooks below using 'differential' correctly? Why not just write 'different'? The structure of differential identity is such that in order for there to be a limit at all, one differen...

0 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by TextKit‭  ·  edited 1y ago by TextKit‭

Question terminology
#2: Post edited by user avatar TextKit‭ · 2021-07-24T06:18:24Z (over 1 year ago)
  • Are the textbooks below using ['differential'](https://www.lexico.com/definition/differential) correctly? Why not just write 'different'?
  • >The structure of **differential** identity is such that in order for there to
  • be a limit at all, one difference along the set of equivalent differences must
  • break the series. This single, decisive difference becomes the threshold
  • after which other equivalent differences belong in some other series of
  • equivalent differences. Laclau terms these series a "chain of equivalences.
  • For him, this process for delimiting difference that might signify how a
  • bounded entity is formed from within a system that logically allows for no
  • closure means that the limit is internal to the system—internal to the sys-
  • tem but not its negation, as we find in the dialectic model. The system of
  • differential identity makes the limit impossible: to break the chain of equiv-
  • alences is to interrupt the structure of **differential** identity. But because of
  • this, the limit becomes in fact necessary.34 Otherwise, there will be nothing
  • but an endless dispersion disallowing not just systems of signification (in a
  • way what concerns us when thinking about the music-and-language and/
  • or music-and-speech divide) but also the construction of actual social for-
  • mations where **differential** relations are all there might be.
  • Keith Chapin, _Speaking of Music
  • Addressing the Sonorous_ (2013), [p 222](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Speaking_of_Music/gFgEA5RURV8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA222&printsec=frontcover).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The second obstacle, of a more aesthetic order, lay in the very nature of the
  • phenomena described by Helmholtz. Thus, for **differential** sounds, for example, he
  • comes to the conclusion that: 'The series [of **differential** sounds] are interrupted as
  • soon as the last order fails to produce any new notes. As a general rule, this leads to
  • the generation of the complete harmonic series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. right down to the
  • generating fundamentals.'<sup>22</sup> If one attempts to make these phenomena _audible_ by
  • means of instrumental writing, nothing but an increase in the density of the same
  • chord in the bass register would be obtained. Varése, a composer fascinated by older
  • composers such as Debussy, Busoni and Richard Strauss, and at a time when the
  • latter was considered, even more than Schoenberg, to be the modern composer _par
  • excellence_, probably saw no gain in such a thickening of triadic structures. It must
  • therefore be asked whether Varése's knowledge of Helmholtz served to provide a
  • screen on to which he projected a somewhat negative image. Would he not rather,
  • in pursuing his aim of writing resolutely modern, and therefore atonal, music, have
  • attempted to apply certain fundamental ideas of Helmholtz to a foreign context?
  • The absence of the indispensable means of production led him to imagine a form of
  • concrete metaphoric composition; namely, an instrumental transcription of acoustic
  • phenomena, considered in a rigorous, stylistic light. The principles of distortion
  • which follow open up a network of stylistic conditions and compositional choices.
  • Max Paddison, Irène Deliège, _Contemporary Music
  • Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives_ (2013), [p 126](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Contemporary_Music/Y9ahAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA126&printsec=frontcover).
  • >Panel-B indicates that when all
  • values for deficiency severity were summated Into an overall total score, the
  • trips that were significantly more efficient — and hence safer — were when
  • drivers listened to ExpMus. Finally, Panel-C shows that the differential
  • effects of music on event severity were statistically significant. Namely, the
  • alternative experimental background significantly decreased the severity of
  • driving deficiencies as rated by highly experienced expert observers.
  • Warren Brodsky, _Driving with Music
  • Cognitive-behavioural Implications_ (2015), [p 291](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Driving_With_Music_Cognitive_Behavioural/eZ-4BwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA291&printsec=frontcover).
  • >### Alternative Modes of Theorizing
  • >Drawing from the conceptualization of polyrhythm as the manifestation of
  • a **differential** consciousness I will now build a discourse that explores
  • alternative modes of theorization created and manifested in participatory
  • music practices, such as fandango. In addition to being the manifestation
  • of **differential** consciousness, polyrhythmic social and musical intentions
  • operate as a vehicle to access differential consciousness. Thus, **differential**
  • consciousness is linked to whatever is not expressible through words. It is
  • accessed through poetic modes of expression: gestures, music, images,
  • sounds, words that plummet or rise through signification to find some
  • void—some no place—to claim their due. This mode of consciousness
  • both inspires and depends on differential social movement and the
  • methodology of the oppressed and its differential technologies, yet it
  • functions outside speech, outside academic criticism, in spite of all
  • attempts to pursue and identify its place and origin (Sandoval, 140).
  • K. Meira Goldberg, Antoni Pizà, _Transatlantic Malagueñas and Zapateados in Music, Song and Dance_ (2019), [p 421](https://books.google.com/books?id=i0OeDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA421&ots=8GfWIYY4e5&dq=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&pg=PA421#v=onepage&q=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&f=false).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; _Move 3:_ consider the shifting between alternately subdivided melodic spans in "domi-
  • nant" or "subdominant"/plagal coloring, each with a qualitatively `different` experiential
  • feel (for example, in contrasting implications between melodic divisions (A: A-E-A)
  • or (A: E—A—E, etc.). These **differential **presentations of vocal and instrumental melodic
  • spans, for example, alternate between melodic spans bounded by the tonic scale degree
  • (e.g., A: A—E—A) and those that figure "plagal" or "whole-tone" ambiguities or substi-
  • tutes, for example, as bounded by scale degree A5 (e.g., A: E—A—E). This shifting also
  • involves morphing orientations in relation to scale degrees ^l, ^5, and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A—
  • E), refiguring scale degree ^1 in relation to its relational potential equidistant as lower
  • or upper fifth relation to scale degrees ^5 and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A—E), in plagal orientation
  • (A: A—D—A), or in a whole-tone environment (A: F—Eb-C#—B—A—G-F).
  • _The Oxford Handbook of Music and Disability Studies _(2015), [p 385](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Oxford_Handbook_of_Music_and_Disabil/S7NlCwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA385&printsec=frontcover).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Although I will draw on the dominant paradigms in psychology and psychiatry
  • throughout this book, I do so with caution because of the inherent limitations in their
  • methods and theorizing about our subjective experiences and psychological states. For
  • example, the prevailing emphasis on diagnostic categories for psychological condi-
  • tions has both advantages and disadvantages, and these will be covered in more detail
  • in our discussion of the diagnostic classification systems currently in use, and
  • how music performance anxiety may usefully be classified within this system. Most
  • people would agree that it is essential to correctly differentiate psychoses from
  • other psychological disorders. Since the major form of treatment for the various
  • psychotic illnesses is pharmacotherapy and since different drugs produce **differential **
  • effects on different conditions, few would argue that careful diagnosis should precede
  • prescription of medication. However, for other psychological ills, the argument with
  • respect to the use of a classificatory system is not so clear, and this is reflected in recent
  • developments to achieve a synthesis in psychological therapies for a range of emo-
  • tional disorders (Barlow, 2008a). Before we embark on a detailed discussion of
  • this issue, we will review some of the philosophies and methods underpinning
  • psychology that have influenced theory and therapy, in order to explicate the concepts
  • and models on which I rely in this book to further our understanding of music
  • performance anxiety.
  • Dianna Kenny, _The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety_ (2011), [p 2](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1).
  • >Performance anxiety had not been classified in any DSM up to and including
  • DSM-IV (1994). In the DSM-IV-TR (2000), performance anxiety is briefly discussed
  • in a section on **differential** diagnosis in social phobia:
  • >>Performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations that involve unfamiliar
  • people are common and should not be diagnosed as Social Phobia unless the anxiety or
  • avoidance leads to clinically significant impairment or marked distress (2000, 300.323).
  • >It is somewhat disturbing that even the DSM does not attempt to differentiate between
  • performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations. The statement
  • above, however, implies that social phobia is the more debilitating condition; as such,
  • a definition is only warranted if the anxiety or avoidance that is characteristic of the
  • diagnosis of all four conditions results in impairment or distress.
  • Ibid, [p 49](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA64&printsec=frontcover).
  • Are the textbooks below using ['differential'](https://www.lexico.com/definition/differential) correctly? Why not just write 'different'?
  • >The structure of **differential** identity is such that in order for there to
  • be a limit at all, one difference along the set of equivalent differences must
  • break the series. This single, decisive difference becomes the threshold
  • after which other equivalent differences belong in some other series of
  • equivalent differences. Laclau terms these series a "chain of equivalences.
  • For him, this process for delimiting difference that might signify how a
  • bounded entity is formed from within a system that logically allows for no
  • closure means that the limit is internal to the system—internal to the sys-
  • tem but not its negation, as we find in the dialectic model. The system of
  • differential identity makes the limit impossible: to break the chain of equiv-
  • alences is to interrupt the structure of **differential** identity. But because of
  • this, the limit becomes in fact necessary.34 Otherwise, there will be nothing
  • but an endless dispersion disallowing not just systems of signification (in a
  • way what concerns us when thinking about the music-and-language and/
  • or music-and-speech divide) but also the construction of actual social for-
  • mations where **differential** relations are all there might be.
  • Keith Chapin, _Speaking of Music
  • Addressing the Sonorous_ (2013), [p 222](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Speaking_of_Music/gFgEA5RURV8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA222&printsec=frontcover).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The second obstacle, of a more aesthetic order, lay in the very nature of the
  • phenomena described by Helmholtz. Thus, for **differential** sounds, for example, he
  • comes to the conclusion that: 'The series [of **differential** sounds] are interrupted as
  • soon as the last order fails to produce any new notes. As a general rule, this leads to
  • the generation of the complete harmonic series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. right down to the
  • generating fundamentals.'<sup>22</sup> If one attempts to make these phenomena _audible_ by
  • means of instrumental writing, nothing but an increase in the density of the same
  • chord in the bass register would be obtained. Varése, a composer fascinated by older
  • composers such as Debussy, Busoni and Richard Strauss, and at a time when the
  • latter was considered, even more than Schoenberg, to be the modern composer _par
  • excellence_, probably saw no gain in such a thickening of triadic structures. It must
  • therefore be asked whether Varése's knowledge of Helmholtz served to provide a
  • screen on to which he projected a somewhat negative image. Would he not rather,
  • in pursuing his aim of writing resolutely modern, and therefore atonal, music, have
  • attempted to apply certain fundamental ideas of Helmholtz to a foreign context?
  • The absence of the indispensable means of production led him to imagine a form of
  • concrete metaphoric composition; namely, an instrumental transcription of acoustic
  • phenomena, considered in a rigorous, stylistic light. The principles of distortion
  • which follow open up a network of stylistic conditions and compositional choices.
  • Max Paddison, Irène Deliège, _Contemporary Music
  • Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives_ (2013), [p 126](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Contemporary_Music/Y9ahAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA126&printsec=frontcover).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; _Move 3:_ consider the shifting between alternately subdivided melodic spans in "domi-
  • nant" or "subdominant"/plagal coloring, each with a qualitatively `different` experiential
  • feel (for example, in contrasting implications between melodic divisions (A: A-E-A)
  • or (A: E—A—E, etc.). These **differential** presentations of vocal and instrumental melodic
  • spans, for example, alternate between melodic spans bounded by the tonic scale degree
  • (e.g., A: A—E—A) and those that figure "plagal" or "whole-tone" ambiguities or substi-
  • tutes, for example, as bounded by scale degree A5 (e.g., A: E—A—E). This shifting also
  • involves morphing orientations in relation to scale degrees ^l, ^5, and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A—
  • E), refiguring scale degree ^1 in relation to its relational potential equidistant as lower
  • or upper fifth relation to scale degrees ^5 and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A—E), in plagal orientation
  • (A: A—D—A), or in a whole-tone environment (A: F—Eb-C#—B—A—G-F).
  • _The Oxford Handbook of Music and Disability Studies_ (2015), [p 385](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Oxford_Handbook_of_Music_and_Disabil/S7NlCwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA385&printsec=frontcover).
  • >&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Although I will draw on the dominant paradigms in psychology and psychiatry
  • throughout this book, I do so with caution because of the inherent limitations in their
  • methods and theorizing about our subjective experiences and psychological states. For
  • example, the prevailing emphasis on diagnostic categories for psychological condi-
  • tions has both advantages and disadvantages, and these will be covered in more detail
  • in our discussion of the diagnostic classification systems currently in use, and
  • how music performance anxiety may usefully be classified within this system. Most
  • people would agree that it is essential to correctly differentiate psychoses from
  • other psychological disorders. Since the major form of treatment for the various
  • psychotic illnesses is pharmacotherapy and since different drugs produce **differential**
  • effects on different conditions, few would argue that careful diagnosis should precede
  • prescription of medication. However, for other psychological ills, the argument with
  • respect to the use of a classificatory system is not so clear, and this is reflected in recent
  • developments to achieve a synthesis in psychological therapies for a range of emo-tional disorders (Barlow, 2008a). Before we embark on a detailed discussion of
  • this issue, we will review some of the philosophies and methods underpinning
  • psychology that have influenced theory and therapy, in order to explicate the concepts
  • and models on which I rely in this book to further our understanding of music
  • performance anxiety.
  • Dianna Kenny, _The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety_ (2011), [p 2](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1).
  • >Performance anxiety had not been classified in any DSM up to and including
  • DSM-IV (1994). In the DSM-IV-TR (2000), performance anxiety is briefly discussed
  • in a section on **differential** diagnosis in social phobia:
  • >>Performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations that involve unfamiliar
  • people are common and should not be diagnosed as Social Phobia unless the anxiety or
  • avoidance leads to clinically significant impairment or marked distress (2000, 300.323).
  • >It is somewhat disturbing that even the DSM does not attempt to differentiate between
  • performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations. The statement
  • above, however, implies that social phobia is the more debilitating condition; as such,
  • a definition is only warranted if the anxiety or avoidance that is characteristic of the
  • diagnosis of all four conditions results in impairment or distress.
  • Ibid, [p 49](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA64&printsec=frontcover).
  • >Panel-B indicates that when all
  • values for deficiency severity were summated Into an overall total score, the
  • trips that were significantly more efficient — and hence safer — were when
  • drivers listened to ExpMus. Finally, Panel-C shows that the **differential**
  • effects of music on event severity were statistically significant. Namely, the
  • alternative experimental background significantly decreased the severity of
  • driving deficiencies as rated by highly experienced expert observers.
  • Warren Brodsky, _Driving with Music
  • Cognitive-behavioural Implications_ (2015), [p 291](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Driving_With_Music_Cognitive_Behavioural/eZ-4BwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA291&printsec=frontcover).
  • >### Alternative Modes of Theorizing
  • >Drawing from the conceptualization of polyrhythm as the manifestation of
  • a **differential** consciousness I will now build a discourse that explores
  • alternative modes of theorization created and manifested in participatory
  • music practices, such as fandango. In addition to being the manifestation
  • of **differential** consciousness, polyrhythmic social and musical intentions
  • operate as a vehicle to access **differential** consciousness. Thus, **differential**
  • consciousness is linked to whatever is not expressible through words. It is
  • accessed through poetic modes of expression: gestures, music, images,
  • sounds, words that plummet or rise through signification to find some
  • void—some no place—to claim their due. This mode of consciousness
  • both inspires and depends on differential social movement and the
  • methodology of the oppressed and its differential technologies, yet it
  • functions outside speech, outside academic criticism, in spite of all
  • attempts to pursue and identify its place and origin (Sandoval, 140).
  • K. Meira Goldberg, Antoni Pizà, _Transatlantic Malagueñas and Zapateados in Music, Song and Dance_ (2019), [p 421](https://books.google.com/books?id=i0OeDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA421&ots=8GfWIYY4e5&dq=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&pg=PA421#v=onepage&q=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&f=false).
#1: Initial revision by user avatar TextKit‭ · 2021-07-24T06:14:18Z (over 1 year ago)
'differential' vs 'different' : as adjectives, not nouns. 
Are the textbooks below using ['differential'](https://www.lexico.com/definition/differential) correctly? Why not just write 'different'?

>The structure of **differential** identity is such that in order for there to 
be a limit at all, one difference along the set of equivalent differences must 
break the series. This single, decisive difference becomes the threshold 
after which other equivalent differences belong in some other series of 
equivalent differences. Laclau terms these series a "chain of equivalences. 
For him, this process for delimiting difference that might signify how a 
bounded entity is formed from within a system that logically allows for no 
closure means that the limit is internal to the system—internal to the sys- 
tem but not its negation, as we find in the dialectic model. The system of 
differential identity makes the limit impossible: to break the chain of equiv- 
alences is to interrupt the structure of **differential** identity. But because of 
this, the limit becomes in fact necessary.34 Otherwise, there will be nothing 
but an endless dispersion disallowing not just systems of signification (in a 
way what concerns us when thinking about the music-and-language and/ 
or music-and-speech divide) but also the construction of actual social for- 
mations where **differential** relations are all there might be. 

Keith Chapin, _Speaking of Music
Addressing the Sonorous_ (2013), [p 222](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Speaking_of_Music/gFgEA5RURV8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA222&printsec=frontcover).

>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The second obstacle, of a more aesthetic order, lay in the very nature of the 
phenomena described by Helmholtz. Thus, for **differential** sounds, for example, he 
comes to the conclusion that: 'The series [of **differential** sounds] are interrupted as 
soon as the last order fails to produce any new notes. As a general rule, this leads to 
the generation of the complete harmonic series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. right down to the 
generating fundamentals.'<sup>22</sup> If one attempts to make these phenomena _audible_ by 
means of instrumental writing, nothing but an increase in the density of the same 
chord in the bass register would be obtained. Varése, a composer fascinated by older 
composers such as Debussy, Busoni and Richard Strauss, and at a time when the 
latter was considered, even more than Schoenberg, to be the modern composer _par 
excellence_, probably saw no gain in such a thickening of triadic structures. It must 
therefore be asked whether Varése's knowledge of Helmholtz served to provide a 
screen on to which he projected a somewhat negative image. Would he not rather, 
in pursuing his aim of writing resolutely modern, and therefore atonal, music, have 
attempted to apply certain fundamental ideas of Helmholtz to a foreign context? 
The absence of the indispensable means of production led him to imagine a form of 
concrete metaphoric composition; namely, an instrumental transcription of acoustic 
phenomena, considered in a rigorous, stylistic light. The principles of distortion 
which follow open up a network of stylistic conditions and compositional choices. 

Max Paddison, Irène Deliège, _Contemporary Music
Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives_ (2013), [p 126](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Contemporary_Music/Y9ahAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA126&printsec=frontcover).

>Panel-B indicates that when all 
values for deficiency severity were summated Into an overall total score, the 
trips that were significantly more efficient — and hence safer — were when 
drivers listened to ExpMus. Finally, Panel-C shows that the differential 
effects of music on event severity were statistically significant. Namely, the 
alternative experimental background significantly decreased the severity of 
driving deficiencies as rated by highly experienced expert observers. 

Warren Brodsky, _Driving with Music
Cognitive-behavioural Implications_ (2015), [p 291](https://www.google.com/books/edition/Driving_With_Music_Cognitive_Behavioural/eZ-4BwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA291&printsec=frontcover).

>### Alternative Modes of Theorizing 



>Drawing from the conceptualization of polyrhythm as the manifestation of 
a **differential** consciousness I will now build a discourse that explores 
alternative modes of theorization created and manifested in participatory 
music practices, such as fandango. In addition to being the manifestation 
of **differential** consciousness, polyrhythmic social and musical intentions 
operate as a vehicle to access differential consciousness. Thus, **differential**
consciousness is linked to whatever is not expressible through words. It is 
accessed through poetic modes of expression: gestures, music, images, 
sounds, words that plummet or rise through signification to find some 
void—some no place—to claim their due. This mode of consciousness 
both inspires and depends on differential social movement and the 
methodology of the oppressed and its differential technologies, yet it 
functions outside speech, outside academic criticism, in spite of all 
attempts to pursue and identify its place and origin (Sandoval, 140). 

 K. Meira Goldberg, Antoni Pizà, _Transatlantic Malagueñas and Zapateados in Music, Song and Dance_ (2019), [p 421](https://books.google.com/books?id=i0OeDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA421&ots=8GfWIYY4e5&dq=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&pg=PA421#v=onepage&q=%22Drawing%20from%20the%20conceptualization%20of%20polyrhythm%22&f=false).

>&nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; _Move 3:_ consider the shifting between alternately subdivided melodic spans in "domi- 
nant" or "subdominant"/plagal coloring, each with a qualitatively `different` experiential 
feel (for example, in contrasting implications between melodic divisions (A: A-E-A) 
or (A: E—A—E, etc.). These **differential **presentations of vocal and instrumental melodic 
spans, for example, alternate between melodic spans bounded by the tonic scale degree 
(e.g., A: A—E—A) and those that figure "plagal" or "whole-tone" ambiguities or substi- 
tutes, for example, as bounded by scale degree A5 (e.g., A: E—A—E). This shifting also 
involves morphing orientations in relation to scale degrees ^l, ^5, and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A— 
E), refiguring scale degree ^1 in relation to its relational potential equidistant as lower 
or upper fifth relation to scale degrees ^5 and ^4 (e.g., A: D—A—E), in plagal orientation 
(A: A—D—A), or in a whole-tone environment (A: F—Eb-C#—B—A—G-F). 

_The Oxford Handbook of Music and Disability Studies _(2015), [p 385](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Oxford_Handbook_of_Music_and_Disabil/S7NlCwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA385&printsec=frontcover).

>&nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; Although I will draw on the dominant paradigms in psychology and psychiatry 
throughout this book, I do so with caution because of the inherent limitations in their 
methods and theorizing about our subjective experiences and psychological states. For 
example, the prevailing emphasis on diagnostic categories for psychological condi- 
tions has both advantages and disadvantages, and these will be covered in more detail 
in our discussion of the diagnostic classification systems currently in use, and 
how music performance anxiety may usefully be classified within this system. Most 
people would agree that it is essential to correctly differentiate psychoses from 
other psychological disorders. Since the major form of treatment for the various 
psychotic illnesses is pharmacotherapy and since different drugs produce **differential **
effects on different conditions, few would argue that careful diagnosis should precede 
prescription of medication. However, for other psychological ills, the argument with 
respect to the use of a classificatory system is not so clear, and this is reflected in recent 
developments to achieve a synthesis in psychological therapies for a range of emo- 
tional disorders (Barlow, 2008a). Before we embark on a detailed discussion of 
this issue, we will review some of the philosophies and methods underpinning 
psychology that have influenced theory and therapy, in order to explicate the concepts 
and models on which I rely in this book to further our understanding of music 
performance anxiety. 

Dianna Kenny, _The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety_ (2011), [p 2](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1). 

>Performance anxiety had not been classified in any DSM up to and including 
DSM-IV (1994). In the DSM-IV-TR (2000), performance anxiety is briefly discussed 
in a section on **differential** diagnosis in social phobia: 

>>Performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations that involve unfamiliar 
people are common and should not be diagnosed as Social Phobia unless the anxiety or 
avoidance leads to clinically significant impairment or marked distress (2000, 300.323). 

>It is somewhat disturbing that even the DSM does not attempt to differentiate between 
performance anxiety, stage fright, and shyness in social situations. The statement 
above, however, implies that social phobia is the more debilitating condition; as such, 
a definition is only warranted if the anxiety or avoidance that is characteristic of the 
diagnosis of all four conditions results in impairment or distress. 

Ibid, [p 49](https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Psychology_of_Music_Performance_Anxi/a7VRXPO2zX8C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=music+differential&pg=PA64&printsec=frontcover).